Candide, or Optimism by Voltaire
1929 Literary Guild Ed., Random House
Book Study, Virginia Siskavich-Bosley
I would like to extend a special thank you to the State University of New York at Plattsburgh and its Special Collections Archive for allowing me to study and photograph this splendid rare book. Special Collections is fortunate enough to house a rather substantial Rockwell Kent collection and I feel privileged to have had the opportunity to examine many items in person.
Table of Contents
Publisher and Place of Publication
Colophon, Size and Format
Collation and Pagination
Decoration and Illustration
Endleaves and Flyleaves
Introduction to 1929 Literary Guild, Random House Edition Candide
In 1926, Bennett Cerf and Donald Klopfer, boyhood friends and new owners of the successful publishing company Modern Library, envisioned a new venture — a publishing company unlike the popular Modern Library whose appeal focused on the selling to the masses — making modern works affordable and accessible to all. In the midst of the pre-Great Depression 1920’s, they imagined a publishing firm that would take classic works of literature and print luxury-style, limited-quantity editions that would appeal to bibliophiles with more discerning tastes. Cerf and Klopfer envisioned hand-drawn, hand-colored illustrations, the finest of papers, the highest quality printing, and bindings of the finest materials to tie the works together. Of this idea, the Random House label was born (Kinkead, “Bennett Cerf,” LIFE, Dec. 3, 1945, p.64).
The inaugural title for Cerf and Klopfer’s maiden business venture was to be none other than Voltaire’s Candide, Or Optimism (Candide, ou l’optimisme). The luxury edition, some 1470 copies made, sold out at an average of twenty dollars per book. (Roberts, Rockwell Kent: The Art of the Bookplate, 2003, p.52). Reasonably-priced hard-cover books of the era were selling for an average of two dollars and fifty cents (Greenspan, Book History, 2000, p.233). Some of the 1928 Candide editions, as was noted by Roberts (2003), sold for as much as seventy-five dollars per book, as long as they carried the illustrator, Rockwell Kent’s, signature. Luckily for Cerf and Klopfer and their infant Random House company, the twenties were still roaring in 1928, and Candide was an instant success. In fact, the 1928 limited-edition of Candide was so loved that the Literary Guild sponsored a version to be published in 1929: less specialized and hand-crafted, but just as thoughtfully published by Random House. Roberts (2003) remarked that the “wider sales [of the less expensive 1929 edition] propelled Rockwell Kent to the forefront of book illustration” (p. 52). The 1929 Literary Guild version of Candide is the edition this author presents here.
Differences Between the 1928 Limited Edition and the 1929 Literary Guild Edition
At times, it is necessary to place the discussion of the 1929 Literary Guild edition of Candide against the backdrop of the 1928 limited edition of Candide. The two are remarkably similar in design and structure, having both been meticulously crafted by Random House, Rockwell Kent and Elmer Adler of Pynson Printers. A few notable differences are the lack of colored illustrations in the later version, not hand-drawn by Kent but reproduced by printers. Also, the font differs between the two editions, as well as the paper used. The trade edition is, as Adler calls it, more “readable.” This will be discussed in more depth throughout the study.
The New York Public Library designed a special exhibit to celebrate Candide’s 250th Birthday. They specifically showcase the 1928 Random House version and can be found here: NYPL Celebrates Candide at 250
A Brief History of Voltaire and Candide
Voltaire was born in Paris in November, 1694 as François-Marie Arouet. Feeling stifled by his controlling and disapproving father, who urged him to study law and forget the fancies of writing and poetry, Voltaire legally changed his name at the age of twenty-three to “François-Marie de Voltaire” (Gordon, 1999, Candide Introduction, p.8). His name change was not simply to ruffle his father, however. Voltaire conducted his life in a bold, satirical way long before he wrote Candide, a satirical and ironic look at the age in which he lived. In choosing the name “Francois-Marie de Voltaire” for himself, Voltaire usurped his (perceived) rightful place in society — he became a nobleman with just a simple change of his name. In France, a name with “de” signifies nobility. Interestingly however, Gordon (1999) writes that even though he adopted a nobility-inspired name, “it was not an attempt to convince others that he came from a noble family: everyone knew very well that he did not. It was instead a gesture of defiance and flamboyant self-esteem” (p.9-10). Further, in true Voltaire fashion, he “became a part of the elite and then ripped it apart with criticism” (p. 8).
Voltaire Versus the French Absolute Monarchy
The nobility was not the only group under attack from the mighty wit of Voltaire — quite the contrary. No group was too large or too small for his verbal and written lashings. In fact, a young Voltaire wound up in prison twice and obtained exile from France several times. Living in 18th Century France, Voltaire lived under what is known to historians as the “Old Regime,” or the two hundred years before 1789, which marks the beginning of the French Revolution (Gordon, p.5). Under the Old Regime, government in France was literally an absolute monarchy, where the King had absolute power over the people, his power granted by God and God alone. In this system, unlike England’s constitutional monarchy, “the French system has no parliamentary elections and no political parties which openly competed for power” (Gordon, p.6). The people were seen as loose cannons, so to speak, incapable of making decisions in their own best interest. On this aspect, Voltaire was in agreement — he, as Gordon writes, “despised ignorance wherever he saw it, especially in the masses, and never imagined that the people could govern themselves” (p.7). The big difference, however, between Voltaire’s brand of monarchy and France’s absolutist monarchy, was the idea of personal freedoms. Voltaire believed that people should be free to practice whichever religion they saw fit (in France, it was illegal to be anything besides Roman Catholic), should have freedom of the press, and other “enlightened” policies (p.7). Certainly, Voltaire felt that he should be able to speak his mind and point out corruption in government without having to spend a year in the Bastille for his “crime”.
Voltaire Versus the Catholic Church
Besides speaking out against government atrocities, Voltaire also ridiculed the Catholic church and in Candide, he ridicules the Jesuits quite shamelessly. The Jesuits are an order of Catholic monks who, in 18th century France, held a great deal of power. Voltaire was educated by Jesuits at the College Louis-le-Grand for six years in his youth, and during this time, obtained first-hand knowledge of the hypocrisy of clergy during the 18th Century in France. Here, his passion for writing and literature was initiated, as the Jesuit teachers encouraged his craft and provided, by way of Latin instruction and care for the classics, “the literary and philosophical tools that he would eventually sharpen on his own and use to lacerate his teachers” (Gordon, p.12).
Candide is a satirical look at the atrocities of life and the ways in which we, as humans, observe, interpret and deal with them. Ted Delorme, narrator for an audio version of Candide, gives this poignant synopsis: “Candide is a relentless, brutal assault on government, society, religion, education, and, above all, optimism. Dr. Pangloss teaches his young students Candide and Cunegonde that everything in this world is for the best, a sentiment they cling to as the world steps in to teach them otherwise. The novel is brilliant, hilarious, blasphemous. . . and Voltaire never admitted to writing it (http://librivox.org/candide-by-voltaire/).
Even though Candide is a highly comical way to examine the suffering in the world (and Candide chronicles a lot of it!), it is a deeply philosophical examination at its core. Voltaire read and absorbed the works of great minds of his day, from Newton, to Leibniz, Pope, and Rousseau, if only to criticize their thoughts. He felt, through it all, that the most efficient and powerful way to present his ideas and cultural criticism was through fictionalized stories (Gordon, 1999). Voltaire believed that many of the men who wrote deep philosophical treatises could only deal in abstracts and absolutes — Voltaire did not see life in this way. Candide is Voltaire’s way of presenting deep philosophical and moral questions. Even though it is over two centuries old, Candide considers human universals, which makes its imagery and themes still relevant today.
Following is a video from the New York Public Library’s “On the Road with Candide” exhibit, featuring the Rockwell Kent edition. It is a bright and swift look at the classic. The entire exhibit can be found here.
Voltaire’s masterpiece is most commonly-known simply as Candide; however, Voltaire’s full title is Candide, ou l’Optimisme, or, in English: Candide, or Optimism. Also included is the subtitle: Translated from the German of Dr. Ralph. With the Additions Found in the Doctor’s Pocket When He Died at Minded in the Year of Our Lord 1759. “Doctor Ralph” was just one of Voltaire’s many pen names, discussed later in this study. Gordon (1999) discusses the duality of Candide, pointing out that the title is not at all simplistic. He discusses how Voltaire undoubtedly meant to play on the word “candide,” which in French “means naive and simple and thus suggests ignorance; but it also means candid and honest and thus suggests integrity” (p.15). Recall that Voltaire was a long-time pupil of the Jesuits who held Latin study at the core of their curriculum. Plays on words and words with multiple meanings are found regularly throughout the work.
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This 1929 edition of Candide was printed by the Pynson Printers in New York City. Founded in 1922 by Elmer Adler, Pynson Printers was a powerhouse in the industry, known for impeccable attention to detail and ferociously high standards (Roberts, 2003, p.37-39). According to a Princeton University exhibition on Adler and his work, Pynson Printers’ manifesto asserts that “we will do no work in which quality must be sacrificed to exigencies of time and cost.” Adler named his company in honor of Richard Pynson, the stationer and printer to Henry VIII who “introduced Roman type to England in 1509,” which had previously utilized only Old English script (Roberts, p.37).
In his personal notes, Bennett Cerf, co-owner of The Modern Library and co-founder of Random House remarked that Adler was largely responsible for the redesign and restructuring of both companies. Cerf writes that as a printer, Adler “was so good that he was allowed to have his office on the 8th floor of the Times building” and that Cerf would often end up paying up to eight times more than what it should have cost for the work to be done; but, because it was so impeccably done, he gladly paid. Amusingly, Cerf recalled that Adler would “tell you he’d do something for a thousand dollars, and when it was finished he’d charge you three thousand, and when he was reminded…he’d say, not the least bit abashed, ‘Well, I figured wrong’” (Cerf, At Random, 2002, p.61). Elmer Adler had a long, prosperous relationship with Cerf and his companies, as after the success of the 1928 version of Candide, he was asked to become a partner to Bennett Cerf and his friend and business partner Donald Klopfer. They wished to capitalize upon Adler’s experience and expertise to help them produce the limited-edition luxury books under the Random House name.
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Publisher and Place of Publication
Founded in New York City in 1927, Random House was the brainchild of Bennett Cerf and Donald Klopfer, lifetime friends and business partners. The men envisioned a company where great works of literature could be printed and published in a very luxurious and particular manner, appealing to book collectors and bibliophiles with discerning tastes (Roberts, 2003). The two men had previously acquired publishing giant Modern Library, a company with wide distribution of hundreds of titles. They wanted this new venture to be just the opposite — particular, small, and distinguished (Roberts, 2003, p.45-46). Random House produced several luxury titles before the Great Depression, including a version of Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass that sold for a whopping $100.00 (Kinkead, p.64). With the Great Depression dropping hard upon the fledgling company, Cerf and Klopfer acted fast, changed their business plan, and kept Random House afloat. It is still very much alive and well today, a global publishing company, touted as the “world’s largest trade-book publisher” (http://www.randomhouse.com/about/history.html).
As was noted previously, the first title published under the Random House label was the 1928 luxury edition of Candide. This edition was so beloved that Random House, in collaboration with the Literary Guild, a Book-of-the-Month-Club established in the late 1920’s, decided to put out another edition the next year that would be widely circulated around the holiday season (Roberts, p.52). The bibliographical note included in the 1929 edition of Candide states that “except for a few minor changes in the translation resulting from further collation with the original text, this edition follows the limited edition published by Random House in the spring of 1928; all of Mr. Kent’s illustrations in that edition are reproduced herein” (Merrill, 1929, Bibliographical note, no page). Random House, by utilizing the services of Mr. Adler and Pynson Printers, as well as reproducing all the art in the first edition by Rockwell Kent, stayed true to their mission to produce high-quality books, even if it could not be considered “luxury.” Further, the Literary Guild saw to it that the edition was equally as splendid as the inaugural Candide by ensuring Rockwell Kent’s drawings would be included. Art Digest (1929) remarked: “Rockwell Kent received what is probably the highest royalty ever paid an artist for a single series of book illustrations for his work on the Literary Guild’s publication of Voltaire’s Candide” (“Kent’s $14,000 Job”, p.7).
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Candide, ou l’optimisme was written by the man known simply as Voltaire. He was born François Marie Arouet, but changed his name to François Marie Arouet de Voltaire around 1718, while imprisoned in the Bastille (Gordon, p.132). Interestingly, however, Voltaire did not claim Candide as his own work — his name does not appear anywhere on the original work. Candide’s title page clearly gives authorship to a German gentleman by the name of “Doctor Ralph.” Van Den Hoven and Weckert (Information Technology, 2008) claim that Voltaire used “no fewer than 176 pseudonyms” (p.181), making him quite the master of disguise. Due to the authoritative and suppressive nature of France and the Old Regime, “French literature of the Enlightenment made heavier use of concealed authorship…Candide claimed to have been “’translated from the German of Doctor Ralph with the additions which were found in the Doctor’s pocket when he died at Minden in the year of our Lord 1759″’, a deliberately redundant package of mystificatory nonsense” (Rogers, Pope, Curll, and the Uses of Anonymity, 2002, p.235). Voltaire was criticizing French government, the Catholic church and many of the famed enlightenment thinkers of his day. He was not ready to claim authorship and go directly to jail.
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The title page text of this Candide edition is as follows (see image below): “CANDIDE, Jean Francois Marie Arouet de Voltaire, illustrated by Rockwell Kent, The Literary Guild New York, 1929”. Also, in the upper left-hand corner is the French “La Raison Suffisante” or, Sufficient Reason. This statement is a reference to the Principle of Sufficient Reason, first coined by metaphysicist and philosopher Leibniz, who Voltaire satirizes throughout the entirety of Candide. Voltaire vehemently disagreed with Leibniz and his “la raison suffisante” and models his buffoonish know-it-all character Dr. Pangloss after Leibniz in Candide. Gordon (1999) states that “according to Leibniz, if God is rational, then everything He does is grounded in reason…that nothing in the world occurs through mere chance” (p.19). Gordon also says that “Voltaire rejected this principle, mentions it no fewer than seven times in Candide” (p.19). So, when Voltaire has his naive Candide mindlessly reciting the teachings of Dr. Pangloss — “the best among all possible worlds” — he is blatantly satirizing Leibniz and “la raison suffisante”.
As can be seen in the image provided, the title page is also heavily embellished with the artwork of Rockwell Kent. The drawings, depicting death and destruction prevalent throughout Candide, are just another way of satirizing Leibniz and his “best of all possible worlds” philosophy, this time through the eyes of Rockwell Kent.
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Colophon, Size and Format
The colophon is as follows: “THE LITERARY GUILD of America selected this book as an example of exceptional designing, re-set by hand in Garamond type, with illustrations by Rockwell Kent, made under direction of Elmer Adler by the Pynson Printers of New York for distribution during December MCM XXIX” (see image below).
The size and format of the book is: Quarto, 11” x 7.5”.
Illustrations and typeface in black and white. Printed matter on the pages is centered in a symmetrical area. There are no indentations for new paragraphs; historiated initials and miniature figure drawings mark new paragraphs, new chapters and the spaces where indentations for conversations would go. Text, therefore, runs from left margin to the right margin without breaks or indents (see images).
Illustrations, in the form of miniatures, run along the bottom quarter of the page, where the page is full text and not the start of a new chapter. Pages with new chapters (which may be placed anywhere on the page — new chapters do not, therefore, always start on the top of a new page) replace what would be a miniature at the bottom of the page with a fully-embellished historiated initial (see images).
Collation and Pagination
This book is paginated in the upper left-hand corner (for left-hand pages) and upper right-hand corner (for right-hand pages). There are one-hundred and twelve pages total. (See image below for example of pagination).
The book does not appear to have any missing pages or segments. It is in pristine physical condition.
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This book was printed in Garamond type, by Pynson Printers, as noted in the colophon. The author would like to note that this typeface is different from the 1928 limited edition of Candide, as Adler wished to “preserve the distinctive character of the fine edition” and to make this, the 1929 trade edition, “‘a much more readable book’” (Benton, Beauty and the Book, 2000, p.148). Benton notes that collectors of rare editions scarcely use or read the books that they own; typeface is more for aesthetics than for purpose.
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There is no rubrication in this book.
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Not applicable to this book.
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This book is richly decorated and illustrated by Rockwell Kent, black and white reproductions of his hand-drawn and hand-colored illustrations from the limited 1928 edition.
Born in 1882, Rockwell Kent was one of the most celebrated, most talented and most controversial artists of his day. In fact, The New Yorker once exclaimed: “That day will mark a precedent which brings no news of Rockwell Kent” (http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/kent-abstract.html). This, perhaps, was not a positive comment, as Kent — especially in his later years — was in the news for his political controversies. Considered a sort of “Renaissance Man,” Martin (2000) describes Kent as “painter, printmaker, illustrator, and architect; designer of books, ceramics and textiles; and prolific writer, [who] was complex and self-contradictory” (p.17). Also very politically outspoken and controversial, Kent was “an anti-authoritarian individualist and life-long socialist” and was more than once, associated with the communist party (p.17), even though Kent himself denied any association. He did, however, rather enjoy fanning the flames at times. The following video is a snippet of a Rockwell Kent documentary, showcasing a few of his works, describing the breadth of his talents and includes an infamous segment of Kent after his passport was taken from him:
Besides his political activism, Rockwell Kent may very well be best known for his book illustrations. A lover of literature, Kent “lavished particular attention on book designs and illustrations” which in turn garnered him wide success and admiration with book lovers all over the world (Martin, p.115). In his prime, Kent commanded a hefty price for his illustrations and he was not lacking work. Benton writes that “Kent was the premier bookmaking personality between the wars” (p.105) and he was so beloved for his artistry and interpretation of Herman Melville’s Moby Dick that in 1931 when Random House published an edition of the classic, “it was so eager to display Kent’s name on the front that it inadvertently omitted Melville’s” (p.107). Bennett Cerf, co-owner of Random House once said, “I never thought that the day would come when the Modern Library would be able to afford to have Rockwell Kent do anything for it” (Roberts, p.46). Interestingly, Rockwell Kent not only illustrated for Cerf’s Modern Library and Random House, but he is fully responsible for the Random House logo that generations of readers are familiar with. Further, of interest to this particular study, is the fact that the Random House logo, designed by Kent in 1926, is later used as the house where Candide and his crew spend the rest of their days “cultivating their garden.” (see images)
Kent became involved in the inaugural Random House project, and subsequently in this 1929 edition, because he was a close professional acquaintance with Elmer Adler, the owner of Pynson Printers. In 1924, Kent designed a program for an American Legion Victory Ball being held at the Waldorf-Astoria, which Adler has been commissioned to print (Roberts, p.39). When Bennett Cerf and Donald Klopfer approached Adler to print their Random House specialties, Adler immediately suggested Kent as their go-to illustrator (p. 45). In 1926, Kent, Adler, Cerf and Klopfer meet to discuss the possibilities of this new business idea that would eventually become Random House. Cerf recalls: “‘One day Rockwell dropped in at our office. He was sitting at my desk facing Donald, and we were talking about doing a few books on the side, when suddenly I got an inspiration and said, ‘I’ve got the name for our publishing house. We just said we were going to publish a few books at random. Let’s call it Random House.’ Donald liked it, and Rockwell Kent said, ‘That’s a great name. I’ll draw your trademark.’ So, sitting at my desk, he took a piece of paper and in five minutes drew Random House” (p.46). In that precise moment, the random house, known to millions of book lovers worldwide, was born. Similarly, Cerf also credits Kent with the idea of making Voltaire’s Candide the inaugural work of the Random House company (p.46). It is uncertain as to why Kent chose Candide for Random House; but certainly, this relatively short, adventure-filled novel by Voltaire — a man as controversial as Kent himself — provided a plethora of inspiration. Bennett Cerf was more than happy with Kent’s choice, noting — a mite tongue-in-cheek — that dead authors do not need to receive any royalties and have no need to proof any of the material before printing (Benton, Beauty and the Book, 2000, p.129). Voltaire’s Candide was indeed the perfect inaugural title to all parties involved.
Decoration/Illustration — Specifics
As was previously noted, each full page of text is illustrated with a Rockwell Kent miniature, or, what Roberts (2000) refers to as “tableaux”, depicting his representation of Voltaire’s text (p.46). Many of the illustrations were quite racy for the late 1920’s (if not for today!), but both Voltaire and Kent were no strangers to the erotic, the sensual, or the risque. Gordon (1999) remarks that Candide is filled with sexual innuendo: “a subtle hint of unconventional sexual action is followed by other hints so that we do not miss the allusion” (p.26). Voltaire wanted to make sure his readers recognized the innuendo. Kent’s work, similarly, has been called “openly sensuous” and his use of the naked female form is widespread (Kolin, Venus and Adonis, 1997, p.399). The following illustration is Kent’s depiction of Chapter 16, the women weeping after Candide has killed their monkey lovers — monkeys, that Candide naively assumes, are hurting them.
Historiated initials mark the start of each new chapter (thirty chapters total).
Tiny human figures mark indentations throughout the text. Where an indent might go for a new paragraph, instead resides a miniscule, nude, human figure. These figures keep the left-to-right text alignment consistent throughout, as no new paragraphs are needed. (See following image).
This edition of Candide is hardcover, blue-cloth covering with silver gilt lettering and images on front and spine. Images to follow show inner and outer bindings.
Endleaves and Flyleaves
The front and back of this edition includes endleaves and flyleaves, in plain off-white paper, the same paper used throughout the text. No special markings or adornments are present.
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Although not the luxury limited-edition of its 1928 inspiration, the 1929 Literary Guild Edition of Voltaire’s Candide is a majestic work in its own right. Black and white Rockwell Kent illustrations dazzle the text, from beginning to end, even found nuzzled throughout the text in ingenious fashion. Garamond typeface, provided by the illustrious Elmer Adler and Pynson Printers supply maximum readability.
Voltaire once said, “It is with books as with men: a very small number play a great part.” Indeed, in his lifetime, Voltaire realized what a giant he had become to the people of France and those rooting for the Enlightenment. How very fitting that the 1929 Literary Guild Edition of Candide is a great book in honor of a great man.
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Arts magazine (1929). Art Digest Inc. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=OFPrAAAAMAAJ
Benton, M. (2000). Beauty and the book: Fine editions and cultural distinction in america Yale University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=WbpOcowMfCIC
Cerf, B. (2002). At random: The reminiscences of bennett cerf Random House Publishing Group. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=-TTOCxUHIYcC
Delorme, T. (2007). Candide by voltaire. Retrieved 04/18, 2012, from http://librivox.org/candide-by-voltaire/
Descartes, R., Rousseau, J. J., & Hobbes, T. (1910). French and english philosophers: Descartes, rousseau, voltaire, hobbes P.F. Collier & son. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=QjsMAAAAIAAJ
Ferris, S. R. (2000). The stormy petrel of american art. Retrieved 04/18, 2012, from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/kent-abstract.html
Greenspan, E., & Rose, J. (2000). Book history Pennsylvania State University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=PEZkkbohbtoC
Kinkead, E. (1945, December 3). Bennett cerf: Publisher of classics and best sellers, he is now the nation’s no. 1 peddler of jokes. Life, 19(23), 63-64, 66.
Kolin, P. C. (1997). Venus and adonis: Critical essays Garland Pub. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=Zw56vmKI_10C
Lewis, F. (Producer), & Lewis, F. (Director). (2007). Rockwell kent documentary (teaser). [Video/DVD] Dundee Road Productions.
Martin, C., Kent, R., West, R. V., & Norman Rockwell Museum, a. S. (2000). Distant shores: The odyssey of rockwell kent Chameleon Books. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=fUNLRh-6n6QC
Merrill, C. E. (1929). Bibliographical note. In Candide, or optimism [Candide, ou l’optimisme] (R. Aldington Trans.). New York: The Literary Guild.
Morley, J. (1913). Voltaire Macmillan. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=ocWMAAAAIAAJ
On the road with candide. (2010). Retrieved 04/10, 2012, from http://candide.nypl.org/content/overview
Roberts, D. E. (2003). Rockwell kent: The art of the bookplate Fair Oaks Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=ATPrAAAAMAAJ
Rogers, P. (2002). Nameless names: Pope, curll, and the uses of anonymity. New Literary History, 33(2, Anonymity), pp. 233-245. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.libaccess.sjlibrary.org/stable/20057722
Satterfield, J. (2002). The world’s best books: Taste, culture, and the modern library University of Massachusetts Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=JbCKjNuBl64C
Van, D. H., & Weckert, J. (2008). Information technology and moral philosophy Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=K3ziD9zQrMAC
Voltaire. (1929). Candide, or optimism [Candide, ou l’optimisme] (R. Aldington Trans.). New York: The Literary Guild.
Voltaire, & Gordon, D. (1998). Candide: Bedford/St. Martin’s. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=NqJboG9j5tEC